Why BGA soldering ball always crack(5)? Increase the contact area of solder to increase its strength

In the previous article, we talked about “How to Increase the bonding force for PCBA by using “Copper” base as the PCB surface finish“. Today, we will discuss further how the SMD (Solder Mask Defined) and NSMD (Non-Solder Mask Defined) pad designs of the BGA package affect the solderability and how these two types of pads affect the bonding force of PCA.

Increasing the solder contact area of a component terminal or leads will generally improve the solderability of the component, as it provides more surface area for the solder to wet and bond to the terminal. This can result in a stronger and more reliable solder joint.

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Why BGA soldering ball always crack(4)? Using "copper" base material as the surface finish for PCB

Following last discussion, we learned that solder cracking is caused when the stress placed upon it exceeds the strength of the bonding force. However, it’s possible to address this issue by increasing the bonding force of the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). By doing so, we can effectively eliminate solder cracking, making it a more reliable and robust technology for a wide range of applications.

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What purpose of alloy metal of Cu, Ag, Zn, Sb, Bi added to solder paste?

Tin (Sn) based solder is still the best material for PCB (Printed Circuit Board) assembly in the modern industry today. The only difference is the lead (Pb) free from the solder base due to environmental concerns.

The melting point of tin (Sn) as 231.9°C (equivalent to 505°K)  is hardly accepted by PCB assembly since most electronic components may not sustain such high temperatures. Maybe it shall say there are still lots of electronic components that can’t reach so high-temperature levels today yet. As a result, the solder powder should contain the majority of tin and a few other alloy components, such as copper (Cu), silver (Ag), indium (In), zinc (Zn), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), etc, to reduce the melting point of solder paste and mass-produce the PCB assembly under lower energy.

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Why BGA soldering ball always crack(3)? IMC layer growth is a certain result to form the soldering joints

The Intermetallic Compound (IMC) layer grows in the interface between Cu-based, Ni-based and Sn-solder is the certain result of the chemical reaction that forming the soldering joint. But the IMC layer is also the weakest location of the solder bonding-force.

As mentioned last page, the bonding strength of PCBA shall include a minimum of 5 defect positions. Identifying the growth of IMC is crucial in determining the quality of soldering. If there is no IMC layer grows between the solder alloy and Cu or Ni substrate, the electronic component and PCB will not be joined. However, the IMC layers are also the weakest point in the whole soldering strength structure. Why?

The IMC is the abbreviation of Inter-Metallic Compounds in the electronics manufacturing industry. The IMC layer is the certain result of the chemical reaction to form the soldering joint. WorkingBear likens the IMC layer just like a child born from the marriage of a girl and a boy.

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Why BGA soldering ball always crack(2)? The composition of PCBA bonding-force

This article will talk about the composition of the PCBA bonding-force.

There are numerous factors and elements involved in PCBA bonding force. However, Workingbear believes that we can utilize the findings of the red dye test to examine this issue. The Red Dye Penetration test of BGA have categorized cracks into five types of defect locations. These positions can also be applied to all soldering problems in PCBA.

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